Quantum Physics For Beginners

Cory Carnley

January 20, 2023

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Quantum physics is an important topic that every beginner should learn at some point. The basics of the subject include waves, particles, and the Strong nuclear force. These topics can be complicated, but the available information will help you understand these quantum physics concepts.

Wave-particle duality

One of the most debated topics in quantum physics is wave-particle duality. The basic theory is that all matter is made up of particles, but there are times when they act like waves. This is true of both light and matter. In this article, we will explore how wave-particle duality works.

Before the development of quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality needed to be better understood. The consensus was that matter was composed of particles, such as atoms. But it was known that atoms could behave like waves under certain circumstances.

With the advent of quantum mechanics, the consensus changed. The light was recognized to have a wavelike character, and the photoelectric effect was explained by assuming that light is in a particle-like state. However, it was only partially accepted by the physics community for years.

The early twentieth century saw several experiments that confirmed the wave-particle duality of light. These included the Estermann and Otto Stern experiment, which used neutrons.

Planck’s quanta theory

Planck’s quantum theory is based on the idea that energy is not continuous but composed of discrete packets of energy called quanta. The approach has proven helpful in many areas, including lasers and quantum cryptography. It has practical applications in the medical and electrical fields, too.

Planck’s radical hypothesis is the basis for many other theories of modern physics. He believed that hot objects could radiate energy in small units called quanta. Although he did not know why energy was quantized, he thought separating the point into small chunks made sense.

Planck’s quantum physics theory has been tested in several experiments and confirmed to be correct. One is the photoelectric effect, wherein light is emitted from a metal compound when electromagnetic radiation strikes it.

Initially, Planck thought that the energy of a black body is radiated uniformly. Still, later he discovered that the quantity of radiation emitted depends on the frequency of the radiation. In this case, the energy emitted increases as the temperature increases.


Electromagnetism is the study of physical interactions between electrically charged particles. The most well-known forces are related to electromagnetism. During the 20th century, scientists developed a quantum theory to explain electromagnetic effects. These include the Lorentz force, which describes the development of electric charges on each other. Maxwell’s equations, created by Scottish mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, unify electricity and magnetism.

Traditionally, electricity is treated as the flow of electrons through a wire. In modern society, devices such as televisions, microwave ovens, cell phones, and electric cars are powered by electricity.

Electromagnetism is studied at many levels, from simple experiments to large-scale applications. It involves the interaction between electrons, which are small, negative electrical charges. They repel like charges, and they are very slow to move.

Electricity and magnetism are closely related, as each is affected by the other. For example, when an electron is added to a wire, it moves down. This causes a current of electrons to travel, and the field associated with the electron contributes to the charge.

Strong nuclear force

The strong nuclear force is the strongest of the four fundamental forces. It is responsible for holding the protons and neutrons together in an atom. Protons are made of quarks, fractionally-charged particles. Quarks cannot be broken into smaller parts.

For solid nuclear force to operate, the subatomic particles must be within a distance of about 10-15 meters. If the particles were too far away from each other, the vital force would be weak. But if the particles were closer to each other, the essential energy would be more potent.

Using a simple triangle analogy, we can eliminate some of the colorful confusion. For example, if a particle has no color, it doesn’t feel a strong force.

Unlike electromagnetic force, a source of energy, reliable nuclear power is a matter source. It has the same properties as gravity, except it is more robust. However, unlike gravity, it is not inversely proportional to the distance between its particles. Therefore, the stronger the force, the more energy it transfers.